Nextcloud 13 installation guide (Debian 9.4 stretch)


Following this guide you will be able to install and configure Nextcloud 13 latest based on Debian 9.4 stretch, NGINX 1.14, openssl 1.1.0h, TLSv1.3, PHP 7.2, MariaDB, Redis, fail2ban, firewall (ufw) and will achieve an A+ rating from as well Nextcloud as Qualys SSL Labs. We will request and implement the ssl certificate from Let’s Encrypt in chapter X.

You only have to ammend the red marked values (YOUR.DEDYN.IO, 192.168.2.x, 22) regarding your environment!


Table of content

  1. Update to openssl 1.1.0h
  2. Install NGINX
  3. Install PHP
  4. Install MariaDB
  5. Install Redis-Server
  6. Preparations for Nextcloud
  7. Hardenings

Last Updates:
May, 17th 2018:

May, 3rd 2018:

  • added the “Table of content”
  • minor ammendments

Update to openssl 1.1.0h

su -
apt purge openssl && cd /usr/local/src/
wget http://ftp.nl.debian.org/debian/pool/main/o/openssl/libssl1.1_1.1.0h-2_amd64.deb
dpkg -i ./libssl1.1_1.1.0h-2_amd64.deb
wget http://ftp.nl.debian.org/debian/pool/main/o/openssl/openssl_1.1.0h-2_amd64.deb
dpkg -i openssl_1.1.0h-2_amd64.deb
root@debian:/usr/local/src# openssl version
OpenSSL 1.1.0h 27 Mar 2018
root@debian:/usr/local/src#

Install NGINX

cd /usr/local/src/
apt update && apt upgrade -y && apt install apt-transport-https lsb-release ca-certificates software-properties-common zip unzip screen curl ffmpeg libfile-fcntllock-perl -y
apt remove nginx nginx-common nginx-full -y --allow-change-held-packages
sed -i '$adeb http://nginx.org/packages/debian/ stretch nginx' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i '$adeb-src http://nginx.org/packages/debian/ stretch nginx' /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key && apt-key add nginx_signing.key
apt update && apt install nginx -y

Modify NGINX

systemctl enable nginx.service && apt-mark hold nginx

To update NGINX in the future just issue the following statement:

apt-mark unhold nginx && apt upgrade -y && apt-mark hold nginx

Change NGINX configuration

mv /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.bak && vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

Paste the following rows:

user www-data;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log warn;
pid /var/run/nginx.pid;
events {
worker_connections 1024;
multi_accept on;
use epoll;
}
http {
server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
upstream php-handler {
server unix:/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;
}
include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
#include /etc/nginx/proxy.conf;
#include /etc/nginx/ssl.conf;
#include /etc/nginx/header.conf;
#include /etc/nginx/optimization.conf;
default_type application/octet-stream;
log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
'$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
'"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for" '
'"$host" sn="$server_name" '
'rt=$request_time '
'ua="$upstream_addr" us="$upstream_status" '
'ut="$upstream_response_time" ul="$upstream_response_length" '
'cs=$upstream_cache_status' ;
access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main;
sendfile on;
send_timeout 3600;
tcp_nopush on;
tcp_nodelay on;
open_file_cache max=500 inactive=10m;
open_file_cache_errors on;
keepalive_timeout 65;
reset_timedout_connection on;
server_tokens off;
resolver 192.168.2.1;
# resolver IP is your Router-IP (e.g. your FritzBox)
resolver_timeout 10s;
include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
}

Start NGINX

service nginx restart

Create folders and apply permissions

mkdir -p /var/nc_data /var/www/letsencrypt /usr/local/tmp/cache /usr/local/tmp/sessions /usr/local/tmp/apc /upload_tmp
chown -R www-data:www-data /upload_tmp /var/nc_data /var/www
chown -R www-data:root /usr/local/tmp/sessions /usr/local/tmp/cache /usr/local/tmp/apc

Install PHP

apt install apt-transport-https lsb-release ca-certificates
wget -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/php.gpg https://packages.sury.org/php/apt.gpg
echo "deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ $(lsb_release -sc) main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list
apt update
apt install php7.2-fpm php7.2-gd php7.2-mysql php7.2-curl php7.2-xml php7.2-zip php7.2-intl php7.2-mbstring php7.2-json php7.2-bz2 php7.2-ldap php-apcu imagemagick php-imagick -y

Configure PHP

cp /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf.bak
cp /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini.bak
cp /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini.bak
cp /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php-fpm.conf /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php-fpm.conf.bak
sed -i "s/;env\[HOSTNAME\] = /env[HOSTNAME] = /" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/;env\[TMP\] = /env[TMP] = /" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/;env\[TMPDIR\] = /env[TMPDIR] = /" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/;env\[TEMP\] = /env[TEMP] = /" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/;env\[PATH\] = /env[PATH] = /" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/pm.max_children = .*/pm.max_children = 240/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/pm.start_servers = .*/pm.start_servers = 20/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/pm.min_spare_servers = .*/pm.min_spare_servers = 10/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/pm.max_spare_servers = .*/pm.max_spare_servers = 20/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/;pm.max_requests = 500/pm.max_requests = 500/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
sed -i "s/output_buffering =.*/output_buffering = 'Off'/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/max_execution_time =.*/max_execution_time = 1800/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/max_input_time =.*/max_input_time = 3600/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/post_max_size =.*/post_max_size = 10240M/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/;upload_tmp_dir =.*/upload_tmp_dir = \/upload_tmp/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/upload_max_filesize =.*/upload_max_filesize = 10240M/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/max_file_uploads =.*/max_file_uploads = 100/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/;date.timezone.*/date.timezone = Europe\/\Berlin/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/;session.cookie_secure.*/session.cookie_secure = True/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/;session.save_path =.*/session.save_path = \"N;700;\/usr\/local\/tmp\/sessions\"/" /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.enable_cli = 1' /etc/php/7.2/cli/php.ini
sed -i "s/memory_limit = 128M/memory_limit = 512M/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/output_buffering =.*/output_buffering = 'Off'/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/max_execution_time =.*/max_execution_time = 1800/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/max_input_time =.*/max_input_time = 3600/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/post_max_size =.*/post_max_size = 10240M/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;upload_tmp_dir =.*/upload_tmp_dir = \/upload_tmp/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/upload_max_filesize =.*/upload_max_filesize = 10240M/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/max_file_uploads =.*/max_file_uploads = 100/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;date.timezone.*/date.timezone = Europe\/\Berlin/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;session.cookie_secure.*/session.cookie_secure = True/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.enable=.*/opcache.enable=1/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.enable_cli=.*/opcache.enable_cli=1/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.memory_consumption=.*/opcache.memory_consumption=128/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.interned_strings_buffer=.*/opcache.interned_strings_buffer=8/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.max_accelerated_files=.*/opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.revalidate_freq=.*/opcache.revalidate_freq=1/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;opcache.save_comments=.*/opcache.save_comments=1/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;session.save_path =.*/session.save_path = \"N;700;\/usr\/local\/tmp\/sessions\"/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/;emergency_restart_threshold =.*/emergency_restart_threshold = 10/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php-fpm.conf
sed -i "s/;emergency_restart_interval =.*/emergency_restart_interval = 1m/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php-fpm.conf
sed -i "s/;process_control_timeout =.*/process_control_timeout = 10s/" /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php-fpm.conf
sed -i '$aapc.enabled=1' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.file_update_protection=2' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.optimization=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.shm_size=256M' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.include_once_override=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.shm_segments=1' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.ttl=7200' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.user_ttl=7200' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.gc_ttl=3600' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.num_files_hint=1024' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.enable_cli=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.max_file_size=5M' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.cache_by_default=1' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.use_request_time=1' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.slam_defense=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.mmap_file_mask=/usr/local/tmp/apc.XXXXXX' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.stat_ctime=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.canonicalize=1' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.write_lock=1' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.report_autofilter=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.rfc1867=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.rfc1867_prefix =upload_' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.rfc1867_name=APC_UPLOAD_PROGRESS' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.rfc1867_freq=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.rfc1867_ttl=3600' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.lazy_classes=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i '$aapc.lazy_functions=0' /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i "s/09,39.*/# &/" /etc/cron.d/php
(crontab -l ; echo "09,39 * * * * /usr/lib/php/sessionclean 2>&1") | crontab -u root -

Modify /etc/fstab

Determine the uid of your www-data user by issuing

id www-data

and only if it differs from ‘uid=33‘ replace the ‘uid=33‘ in the following rows properly before executing them!

sed -i '$atmpfs /tmp tmpfs defaults,noatime,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777 0 0' /etc/fstab
sed -i '$atmpfs /var/tmp tmpfs defaults,noatime,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777 0 0' /etc/fstab
sed -i '$atmpfs /usr/local/tmp/apc tmpfs defaults,uid=33,size=300M,noatime,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777 0 0' /etc/fstab
sed -i '$atmpfs /usr/local/tmp/cache tmpfs defaults,uid=33,size=300M,noatime,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777 0 0' /etc/fstab
sed -i '$atmpfs /usr/local/tmp/sessions tmpfs defaults,uid=33,size=300M,noatime,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777 0 0' /etc/fstab

Mount tmpfs and then restart both, PHP and NGINX

mount -a && service php7.2-fpm restart && service nginx restart

Install MariaDB

apt update && apt install mariadb-server -y && mysql_secure_installation
Enter current password for root (enter for none): 
Set root password? [Y/n] Y
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y

Configure MariaDB

mv /etc/mysql/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf.bak && vi /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Paste the following rows:

[server]
 skip-name-resolve
 innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M
 innodb_buffer_pool_instances = 1
 innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
 innodb_log_buffer_size = 32M
 innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
 query_cache_type = 1
 query_cache_limit = 2M
 query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
 query_cache_size = 64M
 tmp_table_size= 64M
 max_heap_table_size= 64M
 slow-query-log = 1
 slow-query-log-file = /var/log/mysql/slow.log
 long_query_time = 1

[client-server]
 !includedir /etc/mysql/conf.d/
 !includedir /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/

[client]
 default-character-set = utf8mb4

[mysqld]
 character-set-server = utf8mb4
 collation-server = utf8mb4_general_ci
 binlog_format = MIXED
 innodb_large_prefix=on
 innodb_file_format=barracuda
 innodb_file_per_table=1

Restart and connect to MariaDB

service mysql restart && mysql -uroot

Create the database and the user

CREATE DATABASE nextcloud CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci;
CREATE USER nextcloud@localhost identified by 'nextcloud';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES on nextcloud.* to nextcloud@localhost;
FLUSH privileges;
quit;

Redis

apt update && apt install redis-server php-redis -y

Change configuration and group membership

cp /etc/redis/redis.conf /etc/redis/redis.conf.bak
sed -i "s/port 6379/port 0/" /etc/redis/redis.conf
sed -i s/\#\ unixsocket/\unixsocket/g /etc/redis/redis.conf
sed -i "s/unixsocketperm 700/unixsocketperm 770/" /etc/redis/redis.conf 
sed -i "s/# maxclients 10000/maxclients 512/" /etc/redis/redis.conf
usermod -a -G redis www-data
cp /etc/sysctl.conf /etc/sysctl.conf.bak && sed -i '$avm.overcommit_memory = 1' /etc/sysctl.conf

Reboot your server

shutdown -r now

Nextcloud: Create the nextcloud.conf

sudo -s
mv /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf.bak && touch /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf

Paste the following rows:

server {
server_name YOUR.DEDYN.IO;
#Your DDNS adress, (e.g. from desec.io or no-ip.com) 
listen 80 default_server;
location ^~ /.well-known/acme-challenge {
proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:81;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
}
location / {
return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
}
server {
server_name YOUR.DEDYN.IO;
listen 443 ssl http2 default_server;
root /var/www/nextcloud/;
access_log /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.access.log main;
error_log /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.error.log warn;
location = /robots.txt {
allow all;
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}
location = /.well-known/carddav {
return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;
}
location = /.well-known/caldav {
return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;
}
client_max_body_size 10240M;
location / {
rewrite ^ /index.php$uri;
}
location ~ ^/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
deny all;
}
location ~ ^/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
deny all;
}
location ~ \.(?:flv|mp4|mov|m4a)$ {
mp4;
mp4_buffer_size 100m;
mp4_max_buffer_size 1024m;
fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
include fastcgi_params;
include php_optimization.conf;
fastcgi_pass php-handler;
fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
}
location ~ ^/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+)\.php(?:$|/) {
fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
include fastcgi_params;
include php_optimization.conf;
fastcgi_pass php-handler;
fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
}
location ~ ^/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {
try_files $uri/ =404;
index index.php;
}
location ~ \.(?:css|js|woff|svg|gif|png|html|ttf|ico|jpg|jpeg)$ {
try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;
access_log off;
expires 360d;
}
}

Create the letsencrypt.conf

vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/letsencrypt.conf

Paste the following rows:

server {
server_name 127.0.0.1;
listen 127.0.0.1:81 default_server;
charset utf-8;
access_log /var/log/nginx/le.access.log main;
error_log /var/log/nginx/le.error.log warn;
location ^~ /.well-known/acme-challenge {
default_type text/plain;
root /var/www/letsencrypt;
}
}

Create the ssl.conf

vi /etc/nginx/ssl.conf

Paste the following rows

#ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOUR.DEDYN.IO/fullchain.pem;
#ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOUR.DEDYN.IO/privkey.pem;
#ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOUR.DEDYN.IO/fullchain.pem;
ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem;
ssl_session_timeout 1d;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
ssl_session_tickets off;
ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
ssl_ciphers 'ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-DSS-AES128-GCM-SHA256:kEDH+AESGCM:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!DES:!RC4:!3DES:!MD5:!PSK:!AES128';
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
ssl_ecdh_curve secp384r1;
ssl_stapling on;
ssl_stapling_verify on;

Create the proxy.conf

vi /etc/nginx/proxy.conf

Paste the following rows

proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Protocol $scheme;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port $server_port;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
proxy_connect_timeout 3600;
proxy_send_timeout 3600;
proxy_read_timeout 3600;
proxy_redirect off;

Create the header.conf

vi /etc/nginx/header.conf

Paste the following rows

add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;";
add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always;
add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always;
add_header Referrer-Policy "same-origin" always;

Create the optimization.conf

vi /etc/nginx/optimization.conf

Paste the following rows

fastcgi_read_timeout 3600;
fastcgi_buffers 64 64K;
fastcgi_buffer_size 256k;
fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 3840K;
fastcgi_cache_key $http_cookie$request_method$host$request_uri;
fastcgi_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header http_500;
fastcgi_ignore_headers Cache-Control Expires Set-Cookie;
gzip on;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_comp_level 4;
gzip_min_length 256;
gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth;
gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy;
gzip_disable "MSIE [1-6]\.";

Create the php_optimization.conf

vi /etc/nginx/php_optimization.conf

Paste the following rows

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true;
fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;
fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
fastcgi_request_buffering off;
fastcgi_cache_valid 404 1m;
fastcgi_cache_valid any 1h;
fastcgi_cache_methods GET HEAD;

Enhance security

screen -S dhparam
openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 4096

To leave screen press STRG+A following by ‘d’ – to resume run screen -r. Please be patient, it will take a while.

Restart NGINX

sed -i s/\#\include/\include/g /etc/nginx/nginx.conf && service nginx restart

Download and extract Nextcloud

wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/latest.tar.bz2
tar -xjf latest.tar.bz2 -C /var/www && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/ && rm latest.tar.bz2

Install letsencrypt, upgrade to openssl 1.1.0h and request your ssl-certificates

apt update && apt install letsencrypt -y
letsencrypt certonly -a webroot --webroot-path=/var/www/letsencrypt --rsa-key-size 4096 -d YOUR.DEDYN.IO
sed -i s/\#\ssl/\ssl/g /etc/nginx/ssl.conf && service nginx restart

Create a certificate renewal automatism:

vi /root/renewal.sh

Paste the following rows

#!/bin/bash
cd /etc/letsencrypt
letsencrypt renew
result=$(find /etc/letsencrypt/live/ -type l -mtime -1 )
if [ -n "$result" ]; then
/usr/sbin/service nginx stop
/usr/sbin/service mysql restart
/usr/sbin/service redis-server restart
/usr/sbin/service php7.2-fpm restart
/usr/sbin/service nginx restart
fi
exit 0

Make it exectuable and create a cronjob

chmod +x /root/renewal.sh && crontab -e

Paste the red row below existing ones:

09,39 * * * * /usr/lib/php/sessionclean 2>&1
@monthly /root/renewal.sh 2>&1

Nextcloud installation silently

su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ maintenance:install --database "mysql" --database-name "nextcloud" --database-user "nextcloud" --database-pass "nextcloud" --admin-user "YourNextcloudAdmin" --admin-pass "YourNextcloudAdminPasssword" --data-dir "/var/nc_data"'

–database-user “nextcloud” : As set above while creating the database and user

–database-pass “nextcloud” : As set above while creating the database and user

–admin-user “YourNextcloudAdmin” : your free choice

–admin-pass “YourNextcloudAdminPasssword” : your free choice

su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ config:system:set trusted_domains 1 --value=your.dedyn.io'
su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ config:system:set overwrite.cli.url --value=https://your.dedyn.io'
cp /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php.bak

Expand your Nextcloud config.php:

sed -i 's/^[ ]*//' /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php
sed -i '/);/d' /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php
cat <<EOF >>/var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php
'activity_expire_days' => 14,
'auth.bruteforce.protection.enabled' => true,
'blacklisted_files' => 
array (
0 => '.htaccess',
1 => 'Thumbs.db',
2 => 'thumbs.db',
),
'cron_log' => true,
'enable_previews' => true,
'enabledPreviewProviders' => 
array (
0 => 'OC\\Preview\\PNG',
1 => 'OC\\Preview\\JPEG',
2 => 'OC\\Preview\\GIF',
3 => 'OC\\Preview\\BMP',
4 => 'OC\\Preview\\XBitmap',
5 => 'OC\\Preview\\Movie',
6 => 'OC\\Preview\\PDF',
7 => 'OC\\Preview\\MP3',
8 => 'OC\\Preview\\TXT',
9 => 'OC\\Preview\\MarkDown',
),
'filesystem_check_changes' => 0,
'filelocking.enabled' => 'true',
'htaccess.RewriteBase' => '/',
'integrity.check.disabled' => false,
'knowledgebaseenabled' => false,
'logfile' => '/var/nc_data/nextcloud.log',
'loglevel' => 2,
'logtimezone' => 'Europe/Berlin',
'log_rotate_size' => 104857600,
'maintenance' => false,
'memcache.local' => '\\OC\\Memcache\\APCu',
'memcache.locking' => '\\OC\\Memcache\\Redis',
'overwriteprotocol' => 'https',
'preview_max_x' => 1024,
'preview_max_y' => 768,
'preview_max_scale_factor' => 1,
'redis' => 
array (
'host' => '/var/run/redis/redis.sock',
'port' => 0,
'timeout' => 0.0,
),
'quota_include_external_storage' => false,
'share_folder' => '/Shares',
'skeletondirectory' => '',
'theme' => '',
'trashbin_retention_obligation' => 'auto, 7',
'updater.release.channel' => 'stable',
);
EOF

Edit the Nextcloud .user.ini

sed -i "s/upload_max_filesize=.*/upload_max_filesize=10240M/" /var/www/nextcloud/.user.ini
sed -i "s/post_max_size=.*/post_max_size=10240M/" /var/www/nextcloud/.user.ini
sed -i "s/output_buffering=.*/output_buffering='Off'/" /var/www/nextcloud/.user.ini
service php7.2-fpm restart && service redis-server restart && service nginx restart

Adjust Nextcloud Apps

su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ app:disable survey_client'
su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ app:disable firstrunwizard'
su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ app:enable admin_audit'
su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ app:enable files_pdfviewer'

Optimize your Nextcloud using a script

vi /root/optimize.sh
#!/bin/bash
redis-cli -s /var/run/redis/redis.sock <<EOF
FLUSHALL
quit
EOF
su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ files:scan --all -v'
su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ files:scan-app-data -v'
exit 0
chmod +x /root/optimize.sh

Issue the optimize.sh script once:

/root/optimize.sh

Add Nextcloud cronjobs for www-data and root

For www-data:

crontab -u www-data -e

Paste the following rows

*/15 * * * * php -f /var/www/nextcloud/cron.php > /dev/null 2>&1

For root:

crontab -e

Paste the follwoing rows:

5 1 * * * /root/optimize.sh > /dev/null 2>&1

Switch Nextcloud to use cron.php

su - www-data -s /bin/bash -c 'php /var/www/nextcloud/occ background:cron'

Restart all services

service mysql restart && service php7.2-fpm restart && service redis-server restart && service nginx restart

Logon to your brandly new Nextcloud in your browser

https://your.dedyn.io/login

Harden your System using fail2ban and ufw

First install and configure fail2ban and finally configure the firewall ufw to secure and harden Nextcloud.

Install and configure fail2ban

apt update && apt install fail2ban -y

Paste the following rows to the fail2ban filter for Nextcloud:

vi /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/nextcloud.conf

[Definition]
failregex=^.*Login failed.*\(Remote IP: '<HOST>'.*"}$
^.*\"remoteAddr\":\"<HOST>\".*Trusted domain error.*$

Paste the following rows to the fail2ban jail for Nextcloud:

vi /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/nextcloud.local

[nextcloud]
backend = auto
enabled = true
port = 80,443
protocol = tcp
filter = nextcloud
maxretry = 3
bantime = 36000
findtime = 36000
logpath = /var/nc_data/nextcloud.log

Re-start the fail2ban-service

service fail2ban restart

Configure your ufw (uncomplicated firewall)

apt install ufw
ufw allow 80/tcp && ufw allow 443/tcp && ufw allow 22/tcp && ufw logging medium
ufw default deny incoming && ufw enable && service ufw restart

Enjoy your personal data in your secured and hardened Nextcloud-Server!

Don’t forget to Backup your Nextcloud

Find more instructions here: Nextcloud Backup and Restore


Carsten Rieger

12 Responses

  1. Chris says:

    Hi i think i have the same issue with php..
    i run odroid hc1 on debian9 (armhf)
    and i think i solved it by adding [ deb http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian buster main ] to the sources.list

  2. Georg says:

    Hallo Carsten, will nur sagen das ist mit Abstand eines der besten HowTo´s das ich seit langem gesehen habe
    Ein Traum. lg Georg

  3. Chris says:

    Hallo Carsten,

    Wenn ich den nginx Server neu starten möchte kommt folgende Fehlermeldung:

    Process: 3403 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/nginx -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)

    An was kann das liegen? lg Chris

    • Hallo Chris, bitte gib nginx -t ein, das gibt möglicherweise einen Hinwweis auf die Ursache. Deine Ausgabe besagt nur, dass die Konfigurationübersprüfung Fehler entdeckt hat. Was hast Du zuletzt (NGINX) verändert? Servus, Carsten

  4. Are we dealing with some live update here? If so, I will refrain from spamming you any further than this:
    The section where you update openssl is missing, but the chapter header is there. The easiest way for me was:

    root@odroid-stretch64:~# openssl version
    OpenSSL 1.1.0f 25 May 2017

    apt purge openssl

    cd /usr/local/src/

    wget http://ftp.nl.debian.org/debian/pool/main/o/openssl/libssl1.1_1.1.0h-2_arm64.deb
    dpkg -i ./libssl1.1_1.1.0h-2_arm64.deb

    wget http://ftp.nl.debian.org/debian/pool/main/o/openssl/openssl_1.1.0h-2_arm64.deb
    dpkg -i openssl_1.1.0h-2_arm64.deb

    root@odroid-stretch64:/usr/local/src# openssl version
    OpenSSL 1.1.0h 27 Mar 2018

  5. ufw commands will result in “Error need ‘to’ or ‘from’ clause.
    This is caused by a missing ‘&&’:
    ufw allow 80/tcp && ufw allow 443/tcp && ufw allow 22/tcp ufw logging medium
    should be:
    ufw allow 80/tcp && ufw allow 443/tcp && ufw allow 22/tcp && ufw logging medium

  6. Franko says:

    Fehler gefunden
    echo “deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ $(lsb_release -sc) main” | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list
    danach muss ein ->
    apt update
    kommen

  7. Franko says:

    Hallo Carsten

    mit PHP stimmt was nich bekeomme folgende Meldung:
    Paket php7.2-fpm kann nicht gefunden werden … usw

    MFG Franko

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